FAQ FOR HONGKONGERS
IMMIGRATION, BNOS AND APPLYING FOR ASYLUM
ABOUT THIS FAQ / 關於本常見問題解答
This FAQ contains information on immigration and legal matters for Hong Kong BNO holders and non-BNO holders, and those who may be considering seeking asylum. It includes:
本常見問題解答包括關於香港BNO國籍人士和沒有 BNO 國籍人士的移民資訊，以及考慮申請庇護的資訊，當中包括：
Your right to arrive at and stay in the UK as a BNO holder 作為 BNO 國籍人士你來英入境和居留的權利
(Note that this is a quickly evolving situation and we will be updating the FAQ to reflect the latest UK government guidance as soon as we can.請注意 BNO 政策狀況發展迅速，如有任何變動，本頁將儘快更新以反映英國政府最新安排。)
Your right to arrive at and stay in the UK as a non-BNO holder
沒有 BNO 國籍人士你來英入境和居留的權利
Key considerations if you are considering to claim asylum in the UK
BNO HOLDERS: YOUR RIGHTS IN THE UK / BNO 國籍人士：你在英國的權利
Question 1: I hold a BNO. What are my rights to enter and remain in the UK?
我持有 BNO 護照，我有冇權入境和在英國居留？
The UK Government is looking to develop a new, bespoke immigration route for BNO holders (“BNO Measures”). This is an area of ongoing development.
英國政府正在制定為 BNO 人士度身訂造的移民方案，有關詳細情形仍有待英國政府公佈。
The most recent update at the time of writing (5 July 2020) can be found here: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-to-extend-residence-rights-for-british-nationals-overseas-citizens-in-hong-kong.
In summary, the UK Government has recently announced that the new BNO Measures will allow BNO holders:
英國政府最近公佈的政策大綱將容許 BNO 人士：
A 5-year limited leave to remain (LLR). During this time, you have the right to live and work.申請一個五年期簽證，期間你可以在英國居留，工作和讀書
After 5 years of LLR, you can apply for ‘settled status’, also called ‘indefinite leave to remain’ (ILR).五年連續於英國居留後，你可以申請永久居留（Indefinite leave to remain）身份
After 12 months with ILR status, you can apply for full citizenship.獲得永久居留身份後12個月，你可以申請成為英國公民
Please note that you can also apply for asylum as a BNO holder. For more information about seeking asylum in the UK, refer to the relevant section in this FAQ.
請留意你亦可以 BNO 持有人的身分申請難民庇護。請參閱相關章節以了解更多有關在英申請庇護的資訊。
Points to note / 注意事項
You are not automatically eligible for the 5-year limited leave to remain (LLR). You have to first go through an application process, and there is no guarantee of success.持有 BNO 不代表你自動擁有或符合五年期居留簽證。你必須自行申請並經過審核，審批過程可能會不成功。
The BNO Measures are not yet in place—the UK Government has not yet announced the exact date, but had indicated on 1 July 2020 they will be implemented ‘in the coming months’.關於 BNO 的新政策並未正式公佈實行 － 英國政府仍未公佈實施日期，不過外交大臣於7月1日的發言透露新政策將會於未來幾個月實施。
As of now, BNO holders are entitled only to a 6-month stay, during which you will not be able to work, study, or have recourse to public funds. 直至今日，BNO 人士只容許入境英國六個月，期間不能工作，讀書和使用公共資源
What if you choose to arrive in the UK using this 6-month stay (i.e. before the BNO Measures are in force)? The UK Government has indicated that BNO holders in the UK may be allowed to apply under the BNO Measures for a specified period of time. It should be noted that this is an indication only, and there is no guarantee that this will indeed be permitted and catered for in the final BNO Measures.如果你決定在新政策正式公佈前來英國，據目前資料所得，英國政府將可能容許已在英國的 BNO 人士在一特定期限內申請新簽證。不過這只是預計情況，詳細情形仍有待政府正式公佈政策詳細內容方能定奪。
Question 2: What do I need to prepare for the application?
Similar to other immigration applications, you will likely need to pay a fee when applying for LLR. You will still be subject to standard UK immigration checks. These may include proof of sufficient assets, such as bank statements and payslips, medical examinations, checks on criminality etc. At this stage we are not sure if there will be any financial requirements for the new measures.
You will also need to pay for healthcare in the UK (the ‘immigration health surcharge’) as part of your application. It currently costs £400 per year, i.e. £2,000 for 5 years. On 1 October 2020, this will be increased to £624 per year, i.e. £3,120 for 5 years.
你申請簽證時需要支付「移民醫療附加費」。目前該費用為每年£400，五年為£2000。2020年10月1日或之後，該費用將會增加到 £624 一年，五年為 £3120。
Question 3: What about my family?
Indications at present is that the BNO Measures will be open to dependants of BNO holders, however, the definition of dependants is likely to be limited to legally recognised spouses/partners, and children under 18.
根據目前已公布的資訊，BNO 新政策將會包括 BNO 人士的直系親屬，不過直系親屬一般只包括 法定配偶和伴侶，以及未滿18歲的子女。
Other dependants of BNO holders, for example elderly parents who do not themselves have BNO status, are not currently provided for within the existing immigration rules.
Different rules apply towards dependants of British citizens and those with ILR status.
You should seek independent legal advice to explore your options, as much depends on personal circumstance.
已成年的直系親屬，例如沒有 BNO 身份的年邁父母，在現行移民政策下只有英國公民或擁有永久居留身份人士方可申請父母來英，不過你仍然可以嘗試在現行政策框架以外申請。如果你想申請其他成年直系親屬來英，請先行徵詢法律意見。
Question 4: What rights and benefits will I be entitled to in the UK?
Once granted LLR, based on the UK Government’s statements so far, the expectation is that you will be able to live, work and study freely in the UK. You will be able to use the National Health Service (NHS) the same way as a British citizen. Please note that some services under the NHS are subsidised, rather than entirely funded by the Government, so you may still need to pay for some services, such as dental service.
一般情況獲批簽證後，你將可以不受限制地在英國居留，工作和讀書。你可以和其他英國公民一樣使用國民保健服務（NHS）。需注意的是，有些 NHS 服務是補貼，非完全由政府資助，你仍然需要支付某些服務，例如牙科。
However, you will not be able to rely on public funds or access welfare such as unemployment benefits.
As noted at the outset, this is very much a developing area, and the complete and final details of the BNO Measures have yet to be published by the UK Government. Therefore, you should not rely on anything in this FAQ with respect to any decisions as to your future in Hong Kong or in the UK.
NON-BN(O) HOLDERS: YOUR RIGHTS IN THE UK / 非 BNO 國籍人士：你在英國的權利
I only hold a Hong Kong SAR passport, not a BNO. What are my rights to enter and remain in the UK?
Your Hong Kong SAR passport gives you a 6-month stay in the UK without a visa. You will have visitor status and cannot work legally, nor access the NHS, in the UK during this time. You can do up to 30 days of study, as long as it’s not the main reason for your visit.
持有特區護照可以無需簽證而遊客身份入境英國六個月，期間禁止工作和免費使用 NHS 服務。只要讀書不是你到訪英國的主要原因，你可以在英就讀不超過30日的課程。
Stay in the UK for less than 6 months / 在英國逗留少過六個月
You can use the UK as a transit gateway before your onward journey to another country. For example, you may choose to stay in the UK while applying for a visa to stay in another country. However, please be aware that if you plan to apply for asylum in another country, the time you spent in the UK may count against your claim as the UK is considered a ‘safe country’.
Stay in the UK for longer than 6 months / 在英國逗留多過六個月
You have several options if you wish to stay in the UK for longer than 6 months.
If you are 18-30 years old, you may apply for the Youth Mobility Scheme (Tier 5) visa which allows you to live and work in the UK for up to 2 years. You will need to apply from outside the UK before you arrive and you must have at least £1,890 in savings. More information here: https://www.gov.uk/tier-5-youth-mobility
如果你介乎 18 指 30 歲，我可以申請工作假期簽證（Tier 5 Youth Mobility Scheme），此類簽證容許你在英國居留和工作 不超過兩年。但你需要在英國以外的地方申請並且必須擁有至少 1,890 英鎊的儲蓄。詳細情形請參考：https://www.gov.uk/tier-5-youth-mobility
There are also other visa categories that you may be eligible to apply for if you wish to work or study in the UK, for example Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 4. Tiers 1 and 2 visas are for work purposes, and Tier 4 visas are for study purposes. You can find out more about visas for work and study in the UK below: https://www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration/work-visas https://www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration/student-visas.
如果你想來英國工作或讀書，你可以考慮申請現行移民制度的其他簽證，包括 Tier 1、Tier 2、Tier 4簽證等。Tier 1 及 Tier 2 為工作簽證，而 Tier 4 則為學生簽證。你可以在以下網站尋找更多簽證相關資訊：https://www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration/work-visas https://www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration/student-visas
Seek asylum in the UK / 在英申請庇護
You may apply for asylum to stay in the UK as a refugee if you feel you are unable to go back to your place of origin (Hong Kong) due to a well-founded fear of persecution based on five reasons as set out in the Refugee Convention, including your actual or perceived political opinion.
You may apply immediately on arrival to the UK. You may also apply after entering the UK, although the Home Office expects asylum seekers to make their claim at the earliest possible opportunity. If you do not do so, it is open to the Home Office to take this into account and it may affect the Home Office’s assessment of the credibility of your claim.
There is no hard and fast rule about what supporting materials are needed for an asylum claim but it is your duty to prove your claim of well-founded fear of persecution based on your political opinion. It is therefore a good idea to gather and record as much information and evidence as you can in order to support your application before you travel to the UK, or have a way to access it in the UK if you cannot bring anything physically.
More information can be found on the UK Government website: https://www.gov.uk/claim-asylum
What rights and benefits will I be entitled to in the UK as an asylum seeker?
You will not be allowed to work or study while your asylum application is under consideration. The Home Office aims to make a decision on straightforward claims within 6 months, although in reality the Home Office takes longer to resolve most cases. If your application takes longer than one year to process, you may apply for permission to work. You will only be allowed to take up a job which is included in the shortage occupation list. The shortage occupation list can be found here: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/immigration-rules/immigration-rules-appendix-k-shortage-occupation-list.
As an asylum seeker, if you are homeless or need financial help, you may qualify for free housing and a weekly allowance of £37.75 while your application is being processed. Note that you will not be able to choose where you live and it is unlikely to be in London or south-east England. You will be able to access healthcare through the NHS while waiting for your asylum application decision.
申請庇護期間，有需要或無家可歸的可以入住政府提供的免費住所，以及獲發每週 £37.75 的生活費。你亦可以使用 NHS 服務。但請注意你將無法選擇你的居住地，庇護申請者亦多數不會被分配到倫敦或英國東南部。
More information here / 更多資訊:
Points to note / 注意事項
The processing times for asylum applications can be extremely long. The UK Home Office gives an estimate of 6 months after the asylum interview, but sometimes it can take several years. You should also consider that the time for an asylum claim to be resolved may not be limited to awaiting a decision from the Home Office, as you may need to appeal should the Home Office make an initial decision to refuse your asylum claim.庇護審核的時間可能非常長。英國内政部一般預計首次面試後要大概六個月時間審核，不過很多時候整個過程所需時間上年計。你亦須考慮若果內政部否決你的申請，申請上訴所需的時間。
You may be liable to be detained by the Home Office as an asylum seeker in the UK in certain circumstances. You should seek legal advice about the legality of your detention should the Home Office detain you.內政部有可能在特殊情況下把你拘留。如你被内政部拘留，請立刻徵詢獨立的法律意見。
You can also apply for asylum in countries such as Australia and Canada. Every country has different policies regarding asylum seekers, e.g. in Canada you may be able to apply for a work permit while waiting for your application to process.英國以外，你亦可向加拿大和澳洲等國家申請庇護。每一個國家都有不同的庇護政策，例如加拿大容許庇護申請人在等候結果期間申請工作許可。
You may not be able to apply for asylum in another country if you apply in the UK and your application is rejected. If you are able to apply, the rejection in the UK may be considered in future applications. You should seek independent legal advice about this.如果你在英國申請庇護後不成功，你有可能半不能再到其他國家申請，例如加拿大。即時有其他國家接受你的申請，英國的申請不成功日後可能會影響其他國家對你的審批。請徵詢獨立的法律意見。
There are also some countries where there are agreements in relation to which state has responsibility for asylum claims, and as such, if you have made a claim in one of these countries and subsequently come to claim asylum in the UK, you may be returned to the country where you first made an asylum claim. For example, this will apply with most European countries at present. You should seek independent legal advice about this.部分國家亦會互相就何國需負責處理庇護申請的問題制定協議，如你曾經在此類國家（例如大部分歐洲國家）申請庇護，然後到英國再度申請，你有可能會被送回你原先申請庇護的國家。你應就此尋求獨立法律意見。
The process, requirements and processing time for asylum applications differ between countries and based on your individual circumstances. Please consult a qualified legal advisor for further information about your situation.每一個國家的庇護申請過程，要求，所需審批時間都不同，而每一項申請都將根據你的實際情況而決定。請先向合資格法律顧問查詢關於自己的特殊情況。
FURTHER INFORMATION / 其他資訊
Find a Solicitor - Law Society / 尋求律師協助 - 英國律師會: https://solicitors.lawsociety.org.uk/
Citizens’ Advice Bureau / 英國公民諮詢局: https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/
UK Gov - How to claim asylum / 英國政府網 - 如何申請庇護: https://www.gov.uk/claim-asylum
LEGAL DISCLAIMER / 法律免責聲明
The information in this FAQ does not, and is not intended to, constitute legal advice—all information, content, and materials are for general informational purposes only. The information provided may not constitute the most up-to-date legal or other information.
You should contact a lawyer to obtain advice with respect to any particular legal matter for your specific situation. You should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of information in this FAQ without first seeking advice from a qualified lawyer with the relevant expertise.
轉載自Hong Kong Watch